ARCHIVAL PIGMENT PRINT
Archival pigment prints are produced by digital scanning of the negative. The resulting file is then digitally rendered using professional 8-color to 12-color inkjet printers and archival pigment inks on rag paper. Rag paper contains 100% linen and/or cotton fiber and is therefore the highest quality and most expensive paper available on the market. The printing technique renders exceptional detail, and a wide range of grays. The inks have been tested in lab conditions to be UV resistant for approximately 150 years. It is currently it is the most popular printing technique for both black & white and color photography.
BOB ADELMAN, Andy Warhol at the Factory with Flower series
photo 1965 [printed later], archival inkjet print, edition of 20
signed and numbered, 13 x 19 inches.
© Bob Adelman Estate
PLATINUM / PALLADIUM PRINT
Platinum prints are treasured by photographers, collectors and museums because of their tonal range, surface quality and permanence. The unique beauty of a fine platinum print involves a broad scale of tones from black to white. The platinum metals (platinum and palladium) are more stable than gold, and it is estimated that a platinum image, properly made, can last thousands of years. Why platinum/palladium? Platinum is the more permanent of the two, gives a cooler image tone and better separation in the highlights. Palladium is warmer, and gives better separation in the shadows of the print. The result is an image which is alive and three-dimensional.
DOUGLAS KIRKLAND, Coco Chanel, House of Chanel, Rue Cambon
photo 1962 [printed later], platinum / palladium
print with hand painted ink border, edition of 12, signed, numbered, 16 x 20 inches
© 1962 Douglas Kirkland
GELATIN SILVER PRINT
Ever since the technique became popular in the 1880s, gelatin silver prints have remained one of the most loved and prevalent form of photography. The gelatin silver printing process became increasingly popular during the late 19th century, owing to its excellent light sensitivity, greater ease of preparation, and archival quality. A gelatin silver print is a standard black & white photograph that is created from a film negative. The print is produced by the oxidation of light-sensitive silver halides suspended in a gelatin layer on fiber-based paper. A gelatin silver print displays excellent contrast, expressive tonal range, and finely crafted detail. In addition to its quality, a gelatin silver print is also exceptionally stable and strongly resistant to yellowing.
ROY SCHATT, James Dean “Torn Sweater” Series
photograph 1954 [printed later], gelatin silver print, edition of 65,
signed, 20 x 16 inches. © Roy Schatt CMG
TIM WHITE-SOBIESKI, Place Concorde,
C-print, edition of 3, signed,
24 x 36 inches © Tim White Sobieski
C-prints, also known as Chromogenic color prints, are full color photographic prints created by traditional chemical process of exposing negatives on paper. Using three or more light-sensitive silver layers containing cyan, yellow and magenta dye, C-printing process has famously introduced the age of color to photography and became the new standard in color photography. Digital C-prints are the result of printing digital files on a continuous tone printer. They utilize high resolution digital printers and laser / LED lights instead of projected light by a traditional enlarger. A digital C-print delivers extensive range of colors, dynamic range, and distinct sharpness that can only be achieved from a digital process. This innovative method allows the color image to have increased longevity, surpassing the traditional chemical color method.
CIBACHROMES OR ILFOCHROME
Ilfochrome, also known as Cibachrome, is the only available technique to create handmade photographs directly reproduced from color film. This printing method utilizes a plastic base and 13 layers of uniquely stable azo dyes. The result is exceptionally stable prints which resist fading longer than any other photographic color products under display conditions. Ilfochrome has become the medium of choice for high-end photographers, despite the high cost of production. In addition to the greater archival advantage in accurately preserving the original transparency, Ilfochrome prints also have high-def clarity, brilliant hue, color purity and saturation.
CAROLE FONDÉ, Blue Fog Sausalito
Chromogenic print on Fuji Crystal Archive paper, edition of 5,
20 x 24 inches © Carol Fondé
JOHN THOMSON (1837-1921)
Waterfront Central Hong Kong, circa 1868-72, vintage albumen print
7.5 x 10.5 inches
Invented in the 1850s, albumen printing was the first widely available technique of producing a photographic print on a paper base from a negative. Albumen printing is the predominant method of printing in 19th century photographs, thus representing the important cultural moment when photography first became a major aesthetic means of human expression. Albumen prints can only be achieved by the long and rigorous preparation of curing egg-coated paper for six months and then exposing it to sunlight often for hours. The image produced this way has unique and incomparable softness, resulting from warm brown shadows and creamy ivory highlights.
DOUGLAS KIRKLAND, Marilyn Monroe, photograph 1961 [printed later]
carbon print, edition of 9, signed and
numbered, 20 x 24 inches
© 1961 Douglas Kirkland
Carbon printing was invented in the 1850s, mainly to solve the problem of fading prevalent in the early days of photography. A carbon print starts with high resolution separation negatives. Custom pigmented gelatin emulsions (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) are produced using rich pigment colors that are resistant to fading, and exposed to ultraviolet light through the large separation negatives. The exposed pigment films are laminated one at a time, in precise registration onto a specially prepared polyester sheet; the unexposed areas of pigmented gelatin are washed away with hot water. When all four processed color layers are finally transferred together onto a final sheet of mold-made watercolor paper, they form a vibrant and permanent color print. The print has a very slight bas-relief effect and a variation of texture on its surface, both distinctive characteristics of a carbon print.
Read an interesting article about nine analog photography techniques used to create images with these early cameras (heliography, Daguerreotype, Calotype, wet Collodion process, color separation process, photogravure, silver gelatin process, panchromatic black-and-white celluloid film, autochrome Lumière).